Broadcast Live event with multiple smartphone video camera setup

Friends I earlier wrote about Bandwidth bonding , video streaming apps , Facebook live streaming etc. Recently I was trying to find way to use multiple smartphone camera and produce a live event.

Professional broadcast facilities are available to connect broadcast cameras to switching system and telecast the event live but my objective was to use our smartphone camera and create a free or low cost solution for quality broadcast. Now Smartphone cameras can also give quality HD video output so use our smartphones and broadcast a live event.

multiple smartphone video camera setup

Task in mind

I wanted to receive live video from multiple smartphone camera into my laptop and use these live video sources for producing the live event. Then i wanted to stream this video output to either YouTube, Facebook or some other streaming server for public distribution.

Difficulties in setting up multiple smartphone video camera setup

  • How to connect smartphone video to laptop – Using USB wired connection will limit the distance of camera so i wanted to connect smartphone with my laptop through Wi-Fi network.
  • How to send live video from smartphone to laptop – Send live video from smartphone to laptop over wi-fi network requires video streaming so i used IP Webcam app to stream video from smartphone over local Wi-Fi network.
  • Application to receive video from multiple smartphone – In my earlier article about video production and streaming app, i discussed about some Wirecast, vMix and OBS. I selected vMix as this application is free and it can receive multiple video streams.

Create multiple Smartphone video camera setup

Task here is to send video from smartphone to laptop and collect all video stream. Produce the live event with these video streams and then sent it for streaming to server.

Live video from Smartphone to Laptop – I installed IP Webcam app in my smartphone. When you open the app, it shows multiple configuration options for camera. At the bottom of app , there is a button to Start server. Once you click this button, IP Webcam app starts streaming server which can stream live video from cam. The live video screen on IP Cam app shows the URL of the stream. When you type or paste that URL in any mobile or laptop, you get connected to IP Webcam app of streaming mobile.The page opened on browser shows multiple options to fetch the stream from smartphone to laptop.
If your mobile is connected through public network ( mobile network) , your laptop will fetch stream through public network. If your smartphone is connected through local wi-fi network then streaming ip address will be local address so mobile will not consume your internet data. So its better to connect all smartphone and laptop through local network.
If you are already in some local network with Wi-Fi then there is no problem.Connect laptop and all smartphone to local network. If you don’t have local Wi-Fi network then you use a separate ADSL also to have internet and Wi-Fi network.
Alternatively you can connect your laptop to internet and create Wi-Fi hotspot through your laptop. The smartphones can connect to this laptop hotspot and join together in one network.

Receive live smartphone video stream in vMix – Receiving the video stream in your laptop is quite easy. IP Webcam builds the stream URL like http://(smartphone ip):8080/video . In vMix application click on Add Input->Web Browser. Here you enter your smartphone stream URL. Set browser width and height equal to the incoming video stream width and height. Click ok to complete the setup. You will start receiving smartphone live video in vMix.
In the same manner you can configure other smartphone video also and then start producing the live event.

Stream produced video – For streaming the live event, you configure the stream parameters. Click on the gear icon on left side of Stream button at bottom application tray. This will open Streaming settings window.Select the stream destination and then set other parameters according to destination. Save the setting. Click on Stream button to start streaming.

Limitation of multiple smartphone video camera setup

Qualitatively smartphone camera gives good video but focus remains a issue during movement. Auto focus for video is not fast which gives little defocused video during movement so slow camera movement is advised. Smartphone camera is quite compact and light weight so careful camera handling for smooth pan/tilt movement is required.Distance of wireless operation between smartphone and laptop depend upon Wi-Fi signal strength so never go beyond Wi-Fi limits otherwise video will freeze.
Tilt and Pan operations need careful handling. But smooth Zoom operation is not possible with smartphone video camera. Its good to place smartphones with some stand in fixed position for stable and focused frame.

Advantage of multiple smartphone video camera setup

  • Cost effective solution with good quality video
  • Compact setup
  • Limited equipment requirement – Laptop, Smartphone, internet


Producing live event with broadcast quality equipment is quite costly. It requires skilled manpower, equipment and finally funds. If you can compromise little on quality , you can use smartphones for live event. Just take care of smartphone camera handling, your video will look great.

Facebook Live from your Laptop – How To

Social media is playing key role in connecting with people. Day by Day World is narrowing down with more connectivity. Video, Audio, Images and Text messages can be sent to large group of people in seconds. Information sharing is much more convenient with different social media tools. Social media tools and network bandwidth together open options for more and more facilities. Now it is possible to organize a live event on Facebook. You can stream live video to Facebook servers which publish your content to your Facebook page.

How to do Facebook Live

First look at the requirements for live streaming to Facebook servers.

  1. Facebook account
  2. Good quality network connection
  3. Video source – Laptop inbuilt camera or use external camera or video capture
  4. Video encoding and streaming application

Lets discuss above points to understand the process better.

  • You can stream video to your Facebook page. So you must have an account on Facebook.
  • Good quality network connection is essential for video streaming. In case of video streaming , video content is uploaded to Facebook server so demand for upload speed matters a lot. How much upload speed you need? This depends upon the quality of video you want to upload. Quality of video depends upon video encoding parameters.If you compress more, quality will be lower. So understand the encoding parameters for maintaining good quality for your captured video. Generally 2 Mbps stream is good for general purpose but professional broadcast require more bandwidth which depends upon video resolution and compression parameters.
  • You can get video from single camera or multi-camera setup. Your laptop can capture video from inbuilt camera or you can use external USB camera also. In case of multi camera setup, collect the final output of multi camera setup ( produced output) and capture the video through some capture device. Multiple video capture devices are available in market. Blackmagic Intensity shuttle can be a good choice to capture external video.Its drives are supported by most of the applications.
  • Finally you need some application to encode video and encapsulate for streaming. In my last article about Video streaming applications, I discussed some of widely used application. My choice here is Open Broadcaster Studio (OBS) as this is completely free for usage.

Facebook Live – In few Steps

  • Connect your Laptop with internet.For safe side, test your network speed also so that video stream goes smoothly to Facebook server.You video data upload limits should be less than the average upload speed of network otherwise frames will be dropped and freezing will be observed in live video.
  • Open video streaming application. I am giving example here with Open Broadcaster Studio (OBS). Add video source to your OBS. Click on + button in Sources, then select Video Capture device->Create New. A pop up window will emerge which will show capture devices.From the drop down window, select your video capture device.Your video will be visible in preview window. You can then cut it for final output.
  • Now you need to configure video stream.Click on Settings button on right side. The settings window has option for Stream settings.Following settings need to be done.
    • Stream Type – Streaming Services
    • Service – Facebook Live
    • Server – Default
    • Stream Key – You will get this stream key from Facebook configuration page.After necessary configuration on Facebook page, collect the stream key and paste that here.

OBS Facebook live stream settings

  • Now login to your Facebook account and go to Facebook page where you want to do Live video streaming.
    • In Top menu option, Click on Publishing Tools
    • Publishing tools page will open. In left side menu, click on Videos
    • In this Videos section,click on +Live button to create a Facebook Live
    • A popup window will emerge showing the stream url. Stream Url consist of two parts. First part is Facebook server url and other is stream key. You copy this URL and stream key because this will be required for configuration in your streaming application.
    • Facebook live stream
  • Now go back to OBS and paste this stream key into OBS stream settings. Click apply and then OK.
  • Your system is now ready for Live video stream to Facebook. You can now click on Start Streaming in OBS. Without live stream signal, Facebook page shows Offline status which changes to Live after server receives live stream.

Facebook Live configuration is just for getting the unique streaming URL. Some other settings on Facebook page is like Title, description of live event which you can apply as per your requirement. The video streaming applications requires Facebook streaming URL ( complete URL or just stream key) which you may apply as per your application.

I hope, you would have got a broader idea of Facebook Live Event.

Low cost solutions for Broadband Bonding

For beginners, I will just like clear confusion between link bonding or link aggregation and load balancing. Both the methods use more than one connection and join them together. Load balancing devices distributes the data load between the multiples link with certain priority criteria. It helps to achieve redundancy in case of certain link failure. If one link fails, other links share the load. The load balancing device maintain connections between user and internet link for each session. The communication for each session goes through same data link. For example, you want to download some file, so the user session for this download will be connected through same particular link till end of the session. If other user also start file download and load balancing device allots him link-2 , then he will continue with same link till his session remains alive. The load balancing devices have several configuration parameters which allows to maintain priority among different links, manage link failure situations etc.

In case of Broadband bonding, true bandwidth bonding is achieved. Ideally you get the sum of each link.  The Broadband bonding device creates a virtual link by combining all the links. In this method, software algorithm collects incoming data and divides them between different links. The received data packets are repacketized after inserting this repacketization information. The reverse process of this repacketization is required at the other end of system to collects original data packets. Link bonding is much more complicated than just load balancing.

There are multiple hardware and software solutions available for Broadband bonding but most of them are costly. Different proprietary software for Link aggregation are developed by companies with their patent algorithm but most of them are quite costly.

After going through details of different products and solutions, I will like to mention two software cum hardware based solutions. First is Speedify and other is Zifilink ( Earlier name Watchy).

broadband bonding


Speedify is purely a software solution from the user point of view. Speedify is available free for usage upto 1 GB/month of Data transfer. Paid versions provide unlimited data transfer limit. You can download speedify application and install on your PC or laptop. It detects all available network connection including Wi-Fi, Ethernet and tethered devices. You can use only one connection through one adapter, means you can only use one Wi-Fi out of all Wi-Fi detected from a particular Wi-Fi network adapter.

The software application bonds all different network connections and sends data to Speedify servers which perform the reverse process of bonding. The solution depends upon the performance of speedify servers. Servers may limit the data transfer which ultimately affects the purpose of bonding. You are advised to test performance of speedify in your area with free data limit. If you achieve good result then you can buy paid limits otherwise drop the idea of Speedify. Performance tested for Speedify was below our expectation in India.


Zifilink is a hardware cum software solution. It’s hardware unit comes in two model i.e 3x or 8x. Difference is only number of bonding ports. 8x has limit of connecting 8 USB dongle while 3x has limit of only 3 connection bonding.

Broadband bonding process is performed at this hardware bonding router while reverse process is performed at cloud server. At present Zifilink has probably hired cloud servers from amazon. Zifilink is good low cost solution for Broadband bonding.

Zifilink hardware supports only USB dongle but no Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection. It has Ethernet port for device monitoring but not for link bonding. There is another issue that it has limited support for dongle drivers. So You need to use dongles which are supported by Zifilink router. Overall Broadband bonding performance of Zifilink is very Good.

Live Video Streaming applications – Review

Live Video streaming from ground event is becoming popular day by day. Earlier it was quite a difficult task because sufficient bandwidth was not available for live video streaming through mobile networks. Now 3G/4G networks provide a reasonable amount of bandwidth which can transfer live video streams. Generally 3G networks provide around 500-600 kbps of data transfer for live stream .This may not be sufficient for good quality video but highly compressed video can be sent live easily. 4G networks are supporting much higher data transfer speed so you can even live stream high definition videos also.

There are number of software applications which you can be used for live video streaming. Few of them are recommended here for reasons like simple user interface, better video encoding options, additional video production features etc.

live video streaming


Wirecast by Telestream is one of the best video production cum streaming application. Software demo is available for testing. Wirecast Studio cost around $500 and Wirecast PRO version cost around $1000. If you are planning to use application for some professional prupose then its worth to spend $500 .


  • Simple Graphic user interface
  • Multiple options for streaming to YouTube, Wowza etc.
  • Large set of predefined encoding parameters
  • Complete control of video encoding parameter for custom encoding
  • Best video production features
  • Multiple Predesigned video streaming profiles for different video resolution
  • You can take video output from the system but this feature is available in PRO version only.


  • No free app
  • Wirecast trail application comes with wirecast watermak

Open Broadcaster Studio (OBS)

OBS studio is an open source application. It offers similar streaming and production features as Wirecast. From the video encoding and streaming point of view, it is as good as Wirecast but video production interface is much better in Wirecast. Different layers of A/V is more easily managed in Wirecast than managing different scenes and sources in OBS.


  • Free application
  • Good for video encoding and streaming
  • Video recording facility available
  • Option for streaming to Youtube, facebook streaming service etc. Custom streaming server connection facility as well.
  • Large set of video production feature


  • Video production requires dynamic changes so toolsets should be always available in production interface. Wirecast display different production tools systematically that help for dynamic changes.OBS has most of the features but require more user friendly interface.
  • No predesigned video streaming profiles


vMix is a feature rich video production and streaming application. It also offers to record video. You can use playlist option to sequentially play list of a/v sources. vMix interface is better than OBS. It brought all the toolset in the primary interface like record, stream,add input, playlist etc. One of the good thing is production tools like cut, fade ,wipe are simultanesouly available in primary interface. You can cut one scene to other and then wipe other scene. This thing is even better than that of Wirecast. One more advantage with vMix is video output. It support external out from the application. You can get video output from some video render like declink  or HDMI.


  • Large set of feature for video production
  • User interface is good
  • Support multiple streaming servers like youtube, facebook etc. Custom stream option also available.
  • It gives Video out from application. This is useful feature if you want to record your produced output to some external recorder or you want to display produced output to different display screen.
  • 60 day free trail version is available


  • vMix is not completely free application. Some of the features like HD, SD, 4K resultion,  two external out, more than 2 camera requires paid version.The Basic free version offers only 768×576 resolution. But just $60 can upgrade your application for 1920×1080 resolution. I think , the cost of this HD version is quite nominal. Free version has restriction of only 2 camera input. But you get video streaming, recording and external output in free version also.


Wirecast is a good application but it’s a paid application. OBS Studio is completely free but little compromised for features and interface. But it can serve your purpose of video streaming without any limitation. vMix is a good application in terms of video production features and user interface. You can use vMix freely if you want to stream video upto resolution 768×576. If want to stream HD video then you need to pay some charges but its cheaper than cost of Wirecast

How to use Google Handwriting Input for Android smartphone

Technology is improving day by day. Old type-writers are now completely replaced by computers. Even methods for Typing text over computers and smartphones is also changing very fast. Smartphones which were equipped with just virtual keyboard are getting different alternatives for text input. Experts were trying for handwriting and voice input method for last several years. Now handwriting input tool has reached to a mature level where users can conveniently use it.

Google handwriting input tool

Several smartphone users find problem in using virtual keyboard as the keys are quite small. Similarly voice input has problem of picking surrounding noise. So the handwriting input method looks most challenging alternative to all other methods. Handwriting input is quite a user friendly method for text input.

Now Google has a given a next level of text input method , i.e Google handwriting input. It is more intuitive and fast for text input. At present it support 82 languages .After installation Google handwriting input tool becomes part of Android system so you can use this input method on any application and it works with or without internet connection.

What is Google Handwriting input

As the name suggest, handwriting tool works same as we write on paper. Only difference is that we write on some touch sensitive electronic device which read the written text and convert it to print text. The Google handwriting input tool is intelligent and sensitive tool for reading handwritten text.

You can install Google handwriting input tool in your Android phone and activate it. Once you configure , you get one more option to input text in your Android smartphone. Generally people use android keyboard to input text by using virtual keys of keyboard. In Google handwriting input, you don’t have to push virtual keys. You just need to write text with your finger or stylus on the touch screen. Your handwritten text is interpreted by Google handwriting input application and displayed on the screen.

Google handwriting input tool is quite fast in recognizing handwritten text. There is no noticeable delay. It is designed quite intelligently so that it can recognize and interpret different types of handwriting properly. It recognizes independent characters and cursive writing also.It is quite useful for complex languages like Hindi and other south Asian languages which use complex script for keyboard input.

How to use Google Handwriting input in Android smartphone

First check that your Android smartphone has Google Handwriting Input installed or not. If Google handwriting input is not installed then go to Google play store and download it. After downloading and installing Google Handwriting Input, your smartphone gets capability of handwriting recognition. For using this app, first activate the Google handwriting input method.

One important thing to keep in mind is that Google handwriting input converts handwritten text into active language of your android system. If system language is English, handwritten text is interpreted as per English vocabulary. If android system language is Hindi then handwritten text is interpreted as per Hindi vocabulary. If the vocabulary for particular language is not available in system, then Google handwriting input downloads additional package.

activate Google handwriting input

Activate Google handwriting input

Go to “Settings -> Languages & input -> Google Handwriting Input”. Select Google Handwriting Input option to activate it.

How to switch between Google handwriting input and other input method?
If Google handwriting input is active then you can press globe button to open keyboard option.Alternatively you can long press space-bar to open keyboard options.
If other keyboard is active then long press space-bar to open keyboard options.

How to use more languages?
In the settings section, go to Input Languages. You can turn off system language and choose any other language.Google handwriting input will now recognize handwritten work of other language.

How to enter spaces between words?
You can enter spaces between words by tapping the space-bar. The recognizer automatically inserts space also based on understanding of previously entered text. This works efficiently for commonly used words.

Advantage of using Google handwriting input tool

Google Handwriting input tool is result of technological advancement and it provides a latest convenient way to input text in the smartphone.

  • You can enter text in your style of writing text.
  • You need not to switch between virtual keyboards for entering different types of character like numeral, small and capital alphabets , comma, slash etc .Google handwriting input understands all type of characters which were part of virtual keyboard.
  • Your speed of text input can be better by writing text on touch screen instead of moving finger for different virtual keys.
  • People who find inconvenience in typing over virtual keyboard will be highly benefited as they just need to enter text as they write on paper.

How to use Phalcon PHP in shared hosting server

The first and most useful aspect of Phalcon PHP framework is the performance benefit over other php frameworks. Phalcon PHP is much faster than other php frameworks. Phalcon is available as php extension and it loads together with the php on the web server. So the classes and functions of Phalcon are readily available at any moment. This gives the performance benefit to this emerging php framework.

phalcon php in shared hosting

PHP developement with phalcon is similar to other php framework but there is difference in the way of using framework. Every framework has lot of libraries for different purposes and developers include those libraries for creating an application. But Phalcon is slightly different. It is available as PHP extension so you need to install that extension in server.

So the first step for use of Phalcon PHP in shared hosting is to install the phalcon on server. If you are using phalcon on windows server then Phalcon PHP dll files are available at Phalcon Download page. Correct phalcon dll as per your php version and windows X86 or X64 version can be downloaded.

If you want to use Phalcon PHP in shared hosting linux server then you need to compile the extension for linux server and then install it. If you are using Virtual Private Server (VPS) or dedicated server then you have root server access so you can compile the Phalcon at server and then install it.But in case of shared hosting, users don’t have root server access so its not possible to compile Phalcon at server.

How to use Phalcon in shared hosting

The alternate approach may be to compile phalcon externally in some local server and then install the compiled extension in php extension directory of shared hosting.After installation of phalcon extension, create necessary entry for this extension in php.ini file. The php.ini resides in root directory of your shared hosting.

Compile Phalcon PHP for Linux

The Phalcon download page gives sufficient information for compiling Phalcon PHP in different linux operating system. In our case, we compiled locally in one of our CentOS linux server. After compilation, one .so file is created. This is the compiled phalcon extension which need to be installed for using Phalcon PHP in shared hosting server.

Install Phalcon extension in shared hosting server

  • Copy the compiled Phalcon extension in one of the directory of shared hosting server space
  • Add this phalcon extension in PHP.

The or the compiled .so file need to be uploaded to your web server. The root directory of your shared hosting space has a php folder. Inside this php folder, there is another folder ext. This is the appropriate place for keeping the php extension so copy the file in this php/ext folder. The path of root directory is something like /home14/findurlaptop .So the path of our phalcon extension will be /home14/findurlaptop/php/ext/ .

Add Phalcon extension in PHP

Open the php.ini file and add this line of code to include phalcon extension in php.

The correct path of phalcon extension is very important.It is not necessary to keep the Phalcon extension in one particular directory but wherever you place this extension its path must be correct otherwise PHP will not be able to load it.

IRCTC Connect – Best Android app to Book train Tickets in India

IRCTC has improved its ticket booking system in last few months significantly. IRCTC Next Generation eTicketing System website is much better than previous website which had issues of overloading, login etc. New website is fast and more interactive for booking tickets.

IRCTC Connect app login

On next step, IRCTC released its android app IRCTC Connect for train ticket booking. User can download this app from Google play and install it in their android phone. If you are existing IRCTC website user then same user ID and password can be used here in IRCTC Connect for login otherwise you can register as new user.

Look at the basic features of this IRCTC Connect app.

Search Train between stations

irctc connect app new booking

As you can see from above image that IRCTC Connect app presents the available train between stations for a fixed date. There is one advantage of using this app over ticket booking website. In the IRCTC website, if you want to search train for a different dates, then you need to search again but in case of this android result, you can just click on right or left arrow to see trains on previous date or next date. It is just a user convenience but it matters a lot when you book ticket.

Check Seat Availability

irctc connect app train list

User interface of IRCTC Connect app is interactive and user friendly. After you search trains between stations, you can tap on any train to see different travelling classes available in that train. You can then tap on class to see the availability. Result shows ticket availability for 7 days from the selected journey date. You can tap on any availability result and proceed for booking. On the next, you need to add passenger details through Add Passenger or Add Child link. Now you can tap on BOOK to proceed for payment.

irctc connect app payment

IRCTC Connect Menu

If you tap on left menu icon of IRCTC Connect app, different option of ticket booking will be shown through slide menu.

  • New Booking – This takes you to ticket booking interface.
  • My Bookings – This shows booked ticket
  • Cancel Ticket – You can cancel booked tickets from this option.
  • My Account – This allows you to change application password.
  • More – Rate, about us, contact us etc.
  • Logout

When you book ticket through website on your PC, all the details are clearly visible. We need to take care for date of journey, payment details, passenger details etc. This IRCTC Connect app is designed in such an intelligent way that all the important details are clearly visible during the process of booking ticket. Experience of ticket booking through IRCTC Connect is better than booking through website. IRCTC Connect app is fast, interactive, user friendly and simple as well.

How to Create Local Web Server with XAMPP for WordPress

If you like to install WordPress on local computer or want to create a local server environment for web development and testing, then you need to create local server in your PC. There are several ways to create local server but we are primarily concerned with server environment for WordPress, we will see the local Web Server with XAMPP.

XAMPP logo

WordPress is coded with PHP and database is created in MySQL so WordPress prerequisite is PHP and MySQL. The current version of WordPress 4.3 requires following.

  • PHP version 5.6 or greater
  • MySQL version 5.5 or greater

Local Server can be created in Windows machine or Linux machine or Mac.

  • If you want to create Web Server environment in Windows machine with Windows environment, then IIS service need to be activated. After activation of IIS service, PHP and MySQL need to be installed separately and some changes in IIS configuration for activation of PHP script is to be done.
  • If you want to create Web server in Linux machine, Apache server can be installed and then PHP and MySQL need to be installed. Some changes in server scrip for activation of PHP script is required.

Both the above process are not straight and requires certain settings in system before finally achieving Web Server environment. So developing machine as Web Server by installing each application separately and configuring Server for scrip activation is not a straight process which seems tedious for common user. Common user target of learning WordPress and WordPress development becomes more difficult.

XAMPP which is a composite package of Web Server application, PHP and other necessary application can be installed by a single click. This package can be downloaded from XAMPP site and installed in Windows, Linux or Mac system.

Latest version of XAMPP 5.5.28 for Windows contains

Apache 2.4.16

MySQL 5.6.26

PHP 5.5.28

phpMyAdmin 4.4.14

FileZilla FTP Server 0.9.41

Tomcat 7.0.56 (with mod_proxy_ajp as connector)

Strawberry Perl 7.0.56 Portable

XAMPP Control Panel 3.2.1

It is clear from above list that XAMPP package contains Apache for creating Web Server. PHP script and MySQL database are part of this package. phpMyAdmin is the front end application for MySQL database management. So download XAMPP from the link and install the package in your PC. XAMPP is installed in the default Windows directory “c:\xampp\”. Once the application is installed, go to XAMPP control Panel (Icon is created at desktop) and start the Apache and MySQL service.

XAMPP Control Panel

Now your machine is ready as Web Server and Web development work. Now open your browser and write “http://localhost/” in address bar. You will see the default XAMPP files are loaded into browser. Users must know that Apache has default “htdocs” folder for web directory. So any website or page must be within “htdocs” folder for accessing through browser. (Default settings).

Test Web Server Environment with XAMPP

Just for testing the Web Server, create a html and php file and put that file in htdocs folder for access through browser. “C:\xampp\htdocs\” is the default address of folder.

Open a text file through notepad and write <h1> Test File</h1> and save it as test.html. Similarly Write <?php echo “My first PHP script!”;?> on notepad file and save it as test.php file. Put both these files into “C:\xampp\htdocs\” folder. “C:\xampp\htdocs\” acts as localhost for Web Server. You can otherwise download some html and php file from internet and place them in local web directory (htdocs folder) for accessing through browser. [If file extension .html and .php is not visible in notepad file, then go to folder option and uncheck the option in view tab Hide extensions for known file types. This will start showing the file extensions. File name like test.html.txt will not be rendered by browser. It should be test.html ]

Now write “http://localhost/test.html” in browser address bar and see that your file is loaded in browser. Result – Test File

Now write “http://localhost/test.php” in browser address bar and see that your php file is also rendered and loaded in browser. Result – My first PHP script!

If both the files are loaded successfully then it means that your Web Server has started loading php and html script properly. So you can proceed with WordPress installation.

Understand Web Cookies to Know Safe Browsing

What is Web Cookies

Cookies are small text files that some websites put on your computer to store a variety of information about you and your preferences. Here are answers to some common questions about cookies.

Uses of Web cookies

Websites use cookies to offer a personalized experience to users and to gather information about website use. Many websites also use cookies to store information that provides a consistent experience between sections of the site, such as a shopping cart or customized pages. With a trusted website, cookies can enrich your experience by allowing the site to learn your preferences or allowing you to skip having to sign in every time you go to the website. However, some cookies, such as those saved by banner ads, might put your privacy at risk by tracking sites you visit.

Type of Web Cookies-

Temporary web cookies

Temporary cookies (or session cookies) are removed from your computer after you close Internet Explorer. Websites use them to store temporary information, such as items in your shopping cart.

Persistent web cookies

Persistent cookies (or saved cookies) remain on your computer after you close Internet Explorer. Websites use them to store information, such as your sign-in name and password, so that you don’t have to sign in each time you go to a particular site. Persistent cookies can remain on your computer for days, months, or even years.

First-party web cookies

First-party cookies come from the website that you’re viewing and can be either persistent or temporary. Websites might use these cookies to store information that they’ll reuse the next time you go to that site.

Third-party web cookies

Third-party cookies come from other websites’ advertisements (such as pop-up or banner ads) on the website that you’re viewing. Websites might use these cookies to track your web use for marketing purposes.

Can Computer blocks web cookies

You can block or allow cookies on all websites or you can choose which websites’ cookies are allowed.

Can Computer block all web cookies?

Not necessarily. Blocking all cookies can help protect your privacy, but it might limit your experience on some websites. Be selective about which websites you allow cookies for. You can start by blocking all cookies, and then allow cookies as needed for websites that you trust.


Path and folder where web cookies stored

Cookies are stored is in a folder named Cookies which is stored inside the Documents and Settings folder. By default, the path is C:Documents and Settingsyour user nameCookies.

Deleting web cookies

You can delete all or some cookies in Internet Explorer.

To delete a single cookie

  1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet Options.
  2. On the General tab, under Browsing history, click Settings.
  3. Click the View files button.
  4. Click the Name column heading to sort all the files alphabetically, and then scroll down until you see files that begin with the prefix Cookie:. All cookies will have that prefix, and they usually contain the name of the website that created the cookie.
  5. Right-click the cookie you want to delete, click Delete, and then click Yes.
  6. Close the window that contains the list of files, and then click OK twice to return to Internet Explorer.

To delete all web cookies

  1. In Internet Explorer, click the Tools button, and then click Internet Options.
  2. On the General tab, under Browsing history, click Delete.
  3. Select the check box next to Cookies. If you only want to delete cookies, clear any other check boxes.
  4. Click Delete, and then click OK.


  • Some websites store your member name, password, or other information about you in a cookie. If you delete that cookie, you might need to enter your personal information again the next time you visit the site.

Frequently used Shortcut keys in MS Word

Most of us are familiar with Microsoft word operation. Some may have working knowledge of tools, some may be expert but use of shortcut keys improves the productivity and saves your valuable time for creating document. Use of mouse for every frequent action and switching between mouse and keyboard takes a lot of time. If you practice these shortcut keys then you can save lot of time and efficiently create a word document.

Frequently used Shortcut keys in MS Word

Frequently used shortcut keys in MS Word

Shortcut key

Create new document



CTRL + F12



Close document


Save document

Shift + F12

Save document


Save As








Shortcut keys in MS Word for Paragraph formatting

Shortcut Key

Centre text


Justify text

CTRL + L          

Left align text

CTRL + R          

Right align text

CTRL+M Indention



Applies Bullets


One Line Spacing


1½ Line spacing


Two Line Spacing

CTRL+QRemoves paragraph formatting


Shortcut keys in MS Word for Navigation tools

Shortcut Key
Left Arrow

Move cursor one character to the left

Right Arrow

Move cursor one character to the right

CTRL+Left Arrow

Move cursor one word to the left

CTRL+Right Arrow

Move cursor one word to the right

Up Arrow

Move cursor one line up

Down Arrow

Move cursor one line down


Move cursor one paragraph up


Move cursor one paragraph down


Take cursor to end of the document

END           Take cursor to the end of line
CTRL+HOMETake cursor to the beginning of document
HOMEMove cursor to the beginning of line

Find and replace

CTRL + A          

Select all text in document


Create hyperlink


Display the Font dialog box


Manual Page Break


Shortcut keys in MS Word for Font

Shortcut Key

Apply/remove Bold Text


Apply/remove Italic Text

CTRL + UApply/remove Underline Text
CTRL+SHIFT+DApply/remove Double Underline

Convert to Caps


Convert to Small Caps


Remove formatting of selected text (Font formatting)


Grow Font one point

CTRL + [

Shrink font one point


Font size select


Copy text


Cut text


Paste text


Shortcut keys in MS Word for General document Editing

Shortcut Key

Delete one character to the left

CTRL + Backspace

Delete one word to the left


Delete one character to the right

CTRL + DeleteDelete one word to the right

Undo last action


Copy selected text or graphics


Cut selected text or graphics


Paste most recent selected text or graphics


Start new paragraph

Shift + Enter

Start a new line in same paragraph

CTRL + Enter

Insert a page break

Shift + Right Arrow

Select one character to the right

Shift + Left Arrow

Select one character to the left

CTRL+Shift+Right arrow

Selects to the end of a word

CTRL+Shift+Left arrow

Selects to the beginning of a word

Shift + END

Selects to the end of a line

Shift + HOME

Selects to the beginning of a line

Shift + Down Arrow

Extends the selection one line down

Shift + Up Arrow

Extends the selection one line up

CTRL+Shift+Down Arrow

Extends a selection to the end of a paragraph

CTRL+Shift+Up Arrow

Extends a selection to the beginning of a paragraph


There are more shortcut keys in MS Word but those are less frequently used. If you want to improve efficiency of document creation, you need to practice shortcut keys. Instead of using mouse frequently, it becomes easier to apply different tools with keyboard shortcuts.